How do male stoneflies attact other mates?
How do males and females form a bond?
How do male stoneflies reproduce?
This web page provides more details on the mating habits of B. clavipes and some species that form a symbiotic relationship Biological Information Life Cycle Parental Care Adult females make a large colony consisting mainly of larvae in a sheltered area, often under bark/trunk/hardwood logs or logs in rotting logs on the ground.
The workers can reach a length of approx. 0. 5- 0. 75 m and width of 1. 5 cm. The length of the colony can be as short as a few hours and as long as a few weeks. The larvae spend the entire length of their life in the colony, eating the decaying wood of the logs, and moving from one colony to another every few days.
The colony can be disturbed if a predator approaches and the larvae can be killed to remove those bugs. The colony can produce only a few milligrams of adult male stoneflies a year. A female Stonefly is attracted to an individual male Stonefly during the mating season when the male is at rest.
Both sexes will become attracted to certain other types of debris on the ground, and to the presence of other females in the area. Male and female adult stoneflies are also more likely to mate together than other species.
Mating Behavior At maturity the males will lay their eggs on the top of log. The females will use the eggs as a pupal stage, forming small colonies of 100- 800 adult workers in a hole 3 m deep or less.
When the adult workers have become sufficiently large, the female can begin incubating the eggs in her mouth by holding her mouth open, until the egg is fully hatched. The eggs are fertilized by the male, who can leave his eggs for up to 6 weeks in the colony.
Female Stoneflies will often lay large multiples of eggs in a single day, allowing more than one brood to be born. The female larvae in the eggs lay into the soil and become embedded in the soil. They hatch into small adult workers that feed on decaying tree bark/trunks.
They are able to produce offspring by laying their eggs in the ground to be eaten by larvae that hatch later. The larvae then leave the nest and move on to the next tree, or into a nest that the larvae can be entrapped in.
The eggs are eaten by the larvae, which will feed on the soil nutrients, but the food the larvae eat is mostly water soluble. The larvae will be released immediately through the hole in the bark as a pupa, after the egg is fully hatched.
In some species, the pupa will enter the hole and move on to a new den. The pupa's life will be very short, but it will be able to feed on other larvae and the underground root system of the tree. The pupa will become a worker and a worker in turn will become a worker.
A worker will reach sexual maturity as a female as long as he is in a "sexual partner" with a female Stonefly, or if female stoneflies start laying eggs in the ground. As soon as both of these individuals are in the ground, an oviposition between the two will occur, resulting in the release of the eggs.
A single egg will mature into 1- 3 hatchlings, 1- 2 adults, and 1- 2 worker larvae. Once the adults of the species have reached maturity, and the larvae have fed on the dead wood, they will begin to move to another colony to reproduce.
As soon as their colony moves they become "spontaneous reproductives" and reproduce on demand. During the breeding season, when mating occurs in an established colony, male Stoneflies will mate with as many males as females to reproduce.
Female Stoneflies will mate with up to 10 males as they are available, but males are not readily available so the female Stoneflies will often mate with 2 to 4 males at the same time and then have a second mating season.
When the females come to the new colony, they may become anemic, so the male Stoneflies may come to their nest to mate with the females when they first get there.